The words CV (curriculum vitae) and resume are used interchangeably, they both assist the job-seeker in getting a job. Some employers may prefer CV whereas some may be more comfortable with resume.
CV explains your complete career path - all of your work experience, education, achievements, awards, certifications, projects and anything other you may like to showcase. Things are listed in the reverse chronological order.
The resume is a document to showcase your appropriateness for a particular job. The resume should contain your skills, experience, achievements, projects or other things - but these should be relevant to the job you are applying for.
The CV is long as compared to resume. The employer may be busy and the resume's purpose is to give the employer a quick overview of your career path.
For example - your district chess championship certificate may be in your CV but may not be in your resume unless you are applying a job that requires strategic planning.
You can use a common CV for different companies. But the resume must be tailored to the company or job position you are applying for. You should research what the employer may want and customize your resume to highlight the things or skills the job requires. You may not be required to modify your CV unless you acquired a new skill or qualification to add.